# Natural Language Processing

Mario Graff (mgraffg en ieee.org)

# Introduction

In our daily life, we use applications based on Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. It is common to use a virtual assistant such as Siri or Alexa or call a call center where the options are selected orally, or even use the dictation service of the mobile. When visiting a foreign country or learning another language is common to use the service of an online translation system, e.g., Google Translate. Other NLP applications might not be as evident as the ones mentioned. For example, Twitter suggests following a conversation based on the topic. Grammarly helps in the writing style; this can also be done with Word and Google Docs options. On the other hand, there are NLP applications developed to eliciting information from opinions expressed on social media or the web.

The goal of the course is to introduce the students to the field of Natural Language Processing. The most relevant NLP applications will be described through lectures, reading, and programming activities; these include collocations, language models, text categorization, word embeddings, question answering, and sentence entailment, among others.

# Notation

Symbol | Meaning |
---|---|

\(x\) | Variable commonly used as input |

\(y\) | Variable commonly used as output |

\(w\) | Variable mostly used for words (tokens) |

\(\mathbb R\) | The real numbers |

\(\mathbf x\) | Column vector \(\mathbf x \in \mathbb R^d\) |

\(d\) | Dimension |

\(\mathbf w^\intercal \cdot \mathbf x\) | Dot product where \(\mathbf w\) and \(\mathbf x \in \mathbb R^d\) |

\(\mathcal D\) | Dataset of pairs \(\{(x_i, y_i) \mid i=1, \dots N\}\) |

\(\mathcal T\) | Training set |

\(\mathcal V\) | Validation set |

\(\mathcal G\) | Test (Gold) set |

\(N\) | Number of examples |

\(K\) | Number of classes or labels |

\(\mathbb P(\cdot)\) | Probability distribution |

\(\mathcal X, \mathcal Y\) | Random variables |

\(\mathcal N(\mu, \sigma^2)\) | Normal distribution with parameters \(\mu\) and \(\sigma^2\) |

\(f_{\mathcal X}\) | \(\mathcal X\)’s probability density function (pdf) |

\(\mathbb 1(e)\) | Indicator function; \(1\) only if \(e\) is true |

\(\Omega\) | Search space |

\(\mathbb V\) | Variance |

\(\mathbb E\) | Expectation |

# Requirements

## Python’s Libraries

# Bibliography

- Speech and Language Processing. An Introduction to Natural Language Processing, Computational Linguistics, and Speech Recognition. Third Edition draft. Daniel Jurafsky and James H. Martin. pdf
- Introduction to machine learning, Third Edition. Ethem Alpaydin. MIT Press
- All of Statistics. A Concise Course in Statistical Inference. Larry Wasserman. MIT Press.